Today, on my Enterprise Architecture journey, I would like to talk to you about how achieve with success your IT transformation project. Actually, it’s very simple, in order to achieve success for your project, you have to take care of stakeholder management. That’s to say you have to know and understand your stakeholder’s concerns.
Knowing your stakeholders and their concerns is fundamental for the success of your project.
The ADM (Architecture Development Method), the method at the heart of TOGAF, can help us manage our stakeholders easily. Among the several steps of ADM, the stakeholder management is one of the initial ones.
Here are the main steps described in ADM (about stakeholder management) :
1.Identify the stakeholders of your project
A stakeholder represents a person or a role (e.g. CIO) who is interested in the success, or the failure, of the project. The stakeholders can be within your organization or outside it, such as an external auditor.
2.Classify stakeholder positions
Classify the stakeholders. That’s to say, identify the group (such as CIO, CFO, external, etc.) and identify the current and the desired level of understanding and commitment.
3.Determine Stakeholder Management Approach
The previous steps identified a long list of people that are affected by the project. Some of them may have the power to advance or to block your project. Some of them are interested in your project and others are not. This step enables us to see which stakeholders are critics, and which are supporters. These can be mapped onto a Power and Level of Interest Matrix, which also indicates the strategy to adopt for engaging with them.
Power and Level of Interest Matrix
4.Choose and tailor the deliverables
For each stakeholder, you have to determine the most adapted deliverables. It is important to pay particular attention to stakeholder interests by defining specific deliverables of your project. This helps you communicate the project to all the stakeholders and helps them understand it verify that it will address their concerns.
After that, you can create the following table to describe and communicate about the stakeholder management. But be careful when you communicate this table because some information may be sensitive.
Stakeholder Management Map
TOGAF helps us to identify the steps in order to achieve our task of stakeholder management but its description is a bit theoretical. For example, TOGAF doesn’t help us answer the following questions:
- What are the groups of stakeholders?
- What are the concerns of each stakeholder?
- And which deliverable do we use to show our stakeholder that their concerns are taken into account?
Fortunately, I recently discovered a document created by the University of Munich that does these things. Its objective is to complement the existing enterprise architecture management frameworks and provide additional detail and guidance needed to establish EA management within an enterprise.
This catalog re-explains the stakeholder management but also provides a lot of concrete examples. The following diagram describes the relationships between the several concepts. Some of them are in addition to TOGAF (Influence factors, method patterns, information model and collection model) but the main idea is the same.
The catalog lists the groups of stakeholders concretely. This list is based on an online survey.
The list of stakeholder group
A list of concerns is also included in the document.
The concern list
The deliverables are described as well (named viewpoint in TOGAF). See an example below.
An example of deliverables
And obviously, the most interesting, the relationships between these concepts :
Example of relationships between the concepts
With the stakeholder management issued from TOGAF and this document from Munich University, you can have everything you need to manage your stakeholders. And to make your project a success!
TOGAF ADM Stakeholder Management : http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/chap24.html
EAM Pattern Catalog : https://wwwmatthes.in.tum.de/pages/146i8lzdg690d/EAM-Pattern-Catalog